Read

Search form

Purchasing the Presidency: How Citizens United Has Overwhelmed 2012 Spending

Purchasing the Presidency: How Citizens United Has Overwhelmed 2012 Spending
Tue, 9/25/2012 - by Adam Gabbatt
This article originally appeared on The Guardian

Almost $465 million of outside money has been spent on the U.S. presidential election campaign so far, including $365 million that can be attributed to the Supreme Court's landmark Citizens United ruling, according to a report released on Monday.

Super Pacs, which came into effect following the 2010 Citizens United verdict, accounted for $272 million of the expenditure in the study, conducted by the Sunlight Foundation, a non-profit organization devoted to increasing transparency in government.

A further $93 million has been spent by corporations, trade associations and non-profits which, according to the Supreme Court's decision, are able to spend unlimited amounts on political campaigning without disclosing the source of their funds.

"This cycle's outside spending mostly comes in the form of 'independent expenditures' supporting or opposing political candidates by unions, corporations, trade associations, non-profit groups and Super Pacs," wrote Kathy Kiely, managing editor of the Sunlight Foundation.

"This money enabled outside groups to run shadow campaigns for or against candidates of their choice."

Kiely said around 78% of outside spending in 2012 – $365 million of the total $465 million – could be attributed to the "Citizens United effect". The 2010 ruling by the supreme court in the case of Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission allowed corporations and unions to spend unlimited money on campaigning, enabling Super Pacs to spend unlimited amounts as long as they had no coordination with the candidates they support.

In reality, those running Super PACs have often have close ties to political parties. Former George W. Bush advisor Karl Rove runs the conservative American Crossroads Super Pac, while Restore Our Future, a pro-Mitt Romney Super Pac, was founded by former Romney aides.

The money spent by Super Pacs, unions, corporations and non-profit groups is more than double what those groups spent in 2010, the first campaign in which the supreme court judgment had taken effect. Although Super Pacs are usually thought of being aligned with presidential candidates, the Sunlight Foundation found that much of these groups' recent spending has been focussed on more localised electoral battles.

"A deeper dive into the data shows that the latest uptick in outside spending is focused on congressional races: even in presidential battleground states, almost all the spending by outside groups is focused on House and Senate candidates," Kiely wrote.

Recent expenditure includes Crossroads GPS spending $400,000 in Nevada against Democratic Senate candidate Shelley Berkley; Workers Voice, an AFL-CIO Super Pac, logged hundreds of expenditures in the $25 to $60 range in Florida, indicating a get-out-the-vote effort for senator Bill Nelson, according to the Sunlight Foundation.

Of $465 million of outside money spent so far in 2012, $460.8 million comes from Super Pacs, corporations and other groups which do not have to register as political groups. An additional $4.1 million comes from "electioneering communications": advertisements or political activities that focus on issues and policies – the oil industry, for example – and encourage voters to support a candidate without mentioning any politicians by name.

The Sunlight Foundation's data shows a heavy skew towards negative campaigning, with $99.2 million so far spent supporting a candidate and $360.7 million opposing a candidate. Some $131.1 million has been spent on communications opposing President Obama, with a relatively small $50.7 million spent opposing Mitt Romney.

The figures also show that $21.3 million has been spent opposing Rick Santorum – a nod to his surprising endurance during the Republican primaries – and $18.8 million has been spent on opposing Newt Gingrich, who won the South Carolina and Georgia primaries before fading from the race for the Republican presidential nomination.

Looking at the money spent supporting rather than opposing candidates, Romney comes out on top, with $15.7 million spent in his favor. Gingrich comes second, having had $13.5 million invested in his bid for the presidency. Just $6.4 million of outside money has been spent in support of Obama.

Add new comment

Sign Up

Article Tabs

Manchester, economic inequality, wealth gap, wealth divide, Andy Burnham, North South divide, UK educational divide

In an attempt to tackle the inequality separating Britain's North and South, Labour MP and mayoral candidate Andy Burnham pledges to improve education, housing and economic wellbeing in Greater Manchester.

Labor unrest could affect air, rail, subway and boat traffic on the eve of the Euro 2016 soccer tournament.

Barcelona: In the last few months basic income—an unconditional cash payment to every member of the population—has been getting more and more attention in the media and social networks.

climate change denial, Carbon Washington, American Legislative Exchange Council, carbon tax, solar subsidies, solar tax breaks, fracking bans

These ballot measures are noteworthy because they don’t just regulate emissions or mandate transitions – they help the economically insecure, create incentives for individual change, and reassert local authority over corporate polluters.

Black Lives Matter, Movement for Black Lives, Black Panthers, Black Panther Party, Organization for Black Struggle, food pantries, community service, Michael Brown, Ferguson protests, Black Power Movement, OurStory, Black Youth Project 100, racial justice

Nearly two years after people took to the streets in Ferguson to protest the killing of Michael Brown, the nationwide movement has broadened its focus to community empowerment in ways reminiscent of the Black Panthers of the 60s.

Some of the biggest issues facing our country are forgotten once the cameras switch off, but our ADD news cycle only makes us more vulnerable to repeat disasters like the Flint water crisis.

Posted 6 days 16 hours ago
water privatization, Nestlé, water grabs, Community Water Justice, water conflict, Fryeburg, Maine, Peter Gleick, water bottling, Cascade Locks

The Swiss corporation Nestlé has a penchant for gobbling up huge areas of freshwater across the planet and bottling it for profit – even as judges, courts, cities and entire regions try to stand in their way.

Posted 5 days 11 hours ago
climate change denial, Carbon Washington, American Legislative Exchange Council, carbon tax, solar subsidies, solar tax breaks, fracking bans

These ballot measures are noteworthy because they don’t just regulate emissions or mandate transitions – they help the economically insecure, create incentives for individual change, and reassert local authority over corporate polluters.

Posted 4 days 15 hours ago
wealth inequality, income inequality, wealth gap, growing poverty, growing disparity

After 35 years of wealth distribution to the super-rich, inequality has forced much of the middle class towards the bottom, to near-poverty levels, and to a state of helplessness in which they find themselves being blamed for their own misfortunes.

Posted 6 days 17 hours ago
Austrian elections, Alexander Van der Bellen, Austrian Green Party, far-right governments, Norbert Hofer, Freedom Party, anti-immigrant sentiment, xenophobia, migrant crisis

Alexander Van der Bellen, an independent candidate backed by the Austrian Green Party, fought neck and neck with far-right Freedom Party candidate Norbert Hofer and scratched out a narrow victory in the historic election.

Posted 6 days 17 hours ago
single-payer healthcare, Obamacare, Affodable Care Act, public option, health insurance industry, health insurance companies

There's a not-insignificant amount of evidence that when you strip out the names of parties and candidates, support for government-run insurance cuts across partisan lines – and most Americans want a single-payer healthcare system.

Take On Wall Street, break up the banks, too big to fail, financial transactions tax, 21st century Glass-Steagall, carried interest tax loophole, Dodd-Frank Act,

In launching a new coalition to reign in the power of the big banks, Warren warned said taxpayers still may have to bail them out: “Dodd-Frank imposed some discipline, but let’s get real. Dodd-Frank did not end too big to fail.”

climate change denial, climate deniers, Donald Trump, rising sea levels, carbon emissions

The billionaire who called global warming a hoax is now warning of its dire effects in his company's application to build a sea wall to protect Trump International Golf Links & Hotel Ireland in County Clare.

water privatization, Nestlé, water grabs, Community Water Justice, water conflict, Fryeburg, Maine, Peter Gleick, water bottling, Cascade Locks

The Swiss corporation Nestlé has a penchant for gobbling up huge areas of freshwater across the planet and bottling it for profit – even as judges, courts, cities and entire regions try to stand in their way.

climate change, climate denial, Portland Public Schools

In a move spearheaded by environmentalists, the Portland Public Schools board unanimously approved a resolution aimed at eliminating doubt of climate change and its causes in schools.